1. Reduced thirst, hunger, and anxiety

Hausel et al. A carbohydrate-rich drink reduces preoperative discomfort in elective surgery patients. Anesth Analg. 2001 Nov;93(5):1344-50
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11682427

1. Reduced thirst, hunger, and anxiety

Madsen et al. Perioperative thirst: a patient perspective. J Perianesth Nurs. 1998 Aug;13(4):225-8
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S108994729880018X

2. Reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting

Hausel et al. Randomized clinical trial of the effects of oral preoperative carbohydrates on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Surg. 2005 Apr;92(4):415-21
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15739210

3. Reduced insulin resistance

Ljungqvist et al. Glucose infusion instead of preoperative fasting reduces postoperative insulin resistance. J Am Coll Surg. 1994 Apr;178(4):329-36
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149032

Nygren et al. Preoperative oral carbohydrate administration reduces postoperative insulin resistance. Clin Nutr.1998 Apr;17(2):65-71.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10205319

Soop et al. Preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment attenuates immediate postoperative insulin resistance.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;280(4):E576-83
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11254464

Svanfeldt et al. Effect of “preoperative” oral carbohydrate treatment on insulin action–a randomised cross-over unblinded study in healthy subjects.
Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;24(5):815-21
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15979768

4. Reduced protein breakdown

Svanfeldt et al. Randomized clinical trial of the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment on postoperative whole-body protein and glucose kinetics. Br J Surg. 2007 Nov;94(11):1342-50
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17902094

5. Reduced loss of muscle mass

Yuill et al. The administration of an oral carbohydrate-containing fluid prior to major elective upper- gastrointestinal surgery preserves skeletal muscle mass postoperatively–a randomised clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;24(1):32-7
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681099

6. Reduced surgery-induced immunodepression

Melis et al. A carbohydrate-rich beverage prior to surgery prevents surgery-induced immunodepression: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006 Jan-Feb;30(1):21-6.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16387895

7. Reduced length of stay

Noblett et al. Pre-operative oral carbohydrate loading in colorectal surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Colorectal Dis. 2006 Sep;8(7):563-9
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16919107

Awad et al. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment in elective surgery. Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):34-44
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23200124

Smith et al. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment for enhancing recovery after elective surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 14;8:CD009161.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25121931

8. Safety in clinic trials and research

Nygren, J., Thorell, A., Ljungqvist, Olie. (2015). Preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy. Current Opinion Anesthesiology. 28 (3), 364-369 doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000192
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25121931